- From infancy to adulthood, each life stage has its own challenges. Learn how to face those challenges and
prepare your child to be independent with available resources and support at every life stage.
- As you look to support your child, do consider the support you need to care for yourself as well.
Making decisions at different life stages
Life stages are developmental phases that occur at different times of their lives, each with its own biological,
psychological, and social characteristics, such as infancy, childhood, adulthood.
Each life stage brings with it new needs, challenges, roles and social settings, and is often accompanied by new
demands on both the person with disability and the caregiver. Having adequate knowledge of the demands of each life
stage can benefit persons with disabilities and their caregivers significantly.
Life stage needs and key services in the disability sector
Infants and young children
Actions to take
When a child may have special needs
Every child develops at a different pace. Some require more support than others in various areas of development.
While the anxiety can be overwhelming, it is important for parents of children diagnosed with, or suspected of
having, special needs to be equipped with the right information to make informed decisions for the child.
When a child is newly diagnosed with special needs
Caregiving is life-changing and never easy. To be an effective caregiver, it pays to be aware of and understand the
various supports available to you and your child. Working alongside doctors, therapists, social workers and teachers
can be beneficial to help the child make successful transitions across life stages.
Children and teens
Actions to take
In Singapore, with the Compulsory Education Act, children have to start attending school from the age of seven. This
applies to children with special needs as well. They have a choice of attending either mainstream primary school or
Special Education (SPED).
Formal schooling – mainstream primary school and SPED school
For most children, the entry to formal schooling can prove to be a period of much anxiety.
Learn more about transiting into formal education here:
Post-school transition planning
The transition out of school can be challenging for both caregivers and children with special needs. SPED schools
provide support through a structured transition planning process that begins at the age of 13, to help children
identify and attain post-school goals.
SPED schools provide vocational preparation to help students with disabilities be employable when they leave the
school system. Other students may be better suited for care services like Day Activity Centres or Sheltered
It is the parents innate nature to protect their children and keep them safe from harm – and all the more so if
they have disabilities. This may lead to parents overprotecting them or having low expectations of them, which
limits their development and ability to live independently. Helping your children build self-confidence and develop
their full potential require the setting of healthy expectations and goals, and encouraging them to learn and
explore safely, and do things for themselves as much as possible.
There may be leisure and sports activities run by schools and service providers that may interest your child. You can
check out the Events page on this
Actions to take
Mainstream secondary school graduates can progress to Institutes of Higher Learning, which have offices dedicated to
support students with special needs.
Graduates of SPED schools can also consider the School-to-Work Transition Programme and other vocational training
National Service (NS)
Under the Enlistment Act, all male Singaporean citizens and Permanent Residents (PRs) are required to serve NS once
they turn 18.
However, they could be partially or fully exempted from this requirement if they are assessed to be unfit for
services, have physical disabilities or severe medical conditions. Exemption will depend on the results of the
medical check-up and the decision of the Armed Forces Council.
More information can be found here.
Employment can boost a person’s physical, mental and emotional well-being. It helps to give them the dignity of
earning their own keep, and a sense of fulfilment that comes from using their skills and talents meaningfully. For
persons with disabilities, the pathway to employment can be a long one, and both they and their caregivers may need
to make a conscious decision to pursue employment as a life goal and work towards it.
Adult care services
Adults who lack adequate skills for employment may benefit from Sheltered Workshops programmes, which engage them in
simple vocational tasks under close supervision. Those with limited care support at home could consider day care or
residential care in group homes, Adult Disability Hostels and Adult Disability Homes. Alternatively, families could
consider hiring foreign domestic workers to care for them at home.
For children with special needs who lack mental capacity, parents may need to prepare to apply to be their
court-appointed deputies as the children approach the legal age of 21. This gives them the power to make important
decisions on certain matters on behalf of their children, including personal welfare and health, ownership of
property, and finance matters. The Assisted Deputyship scheme will help them do this, or they can approach the Office of the
Public Guardian directly. More information can be found here.
Long term care planning
Actions to take
- Consider setting up a trust fund or writing a will to ensure your loved one will be cared for in the future.
Caregivers are naturally anxious about who will look after their children when they are no longer around. There is
no simple solution to this, but starting early to address this issue can give caregivers more time to make plans and
Caregivers can consider applying for the Developmental Disability Registry (DDR) Identity (ID) card to help members of the
public identify and extend appropriate assistance to their child with special needs, giving caregivers a better
peace of mind.
Financial security and estate planning
Caring for a loved one with special needs brings various challenges – physical, emotional and financial, both
to the children with special needs and the family members. Typically, financial planning may not be essential as
parents care for their children until they are old enough to earn a livelihood for themselves.
However, when it comes to children with special needs, provision of care from parents never really stops, even when
they become older and are no longer employed. Hence, careful and adequate financial planning is required for
families who have children with special needs.
A Trust Fund is one of the many estate planning tools that parents can consider. It ensures that there is a steady
income stream for their care recipients when they can no longer be cared for. With a minimum sum of $5,000, a trust
fund can be set up through the Special Needs
Trust Company (SNTC), the only non-profit company with trust services for persons with disabilities. More
information can be found here.
Caregiver may also consider writing a
will, which is an integral part of estate planning. It allows caregivers to distribute their assets
according to their wishes, and ensure that their children continue to be supported after their passing. Without a
will, the State will distribute one’s property to various relatives according to the Intestate Succession Act. For more information and services on wills and estate management,
log on to My Legacy portal.
Preparing for your own needs
When measures are in place for your child, do take time to consider your own personal needs and wishes. My Legacy is a one-stop digital portal that directs you
to services and guides you on everything related to future care planning – from palliative care and
estate settlement matters to funeral matters. By documenting your wishes and plans, you can receive the care you
want and help your loved ones handle difficult decisions when the time comes.
Qualifying for eldercare
As persons with disabilities reach their senior years, they may qualify for assistance from various eldercare schemes
and services. The Agency for Integrated Care integrates
social care, healthcare, mental health and caregiving resources under one roof for seniors, caregivers and care
At the same time, some disability support programmes, e.g. Sheltered Workshops, may have an upper age limit. Staff
will help the person with disabilities to transition to an appropriate service in the eldercare sector where
- LifeSG App – A one-stop portal for seniors, aged 60
and above, to access personalised government services and information.
Preparing for the end of caregiving
Death can be a difficult subject to broach with anyone, as it is often perceived as a taboo topic. Even though the
topic can be uncomfortable, it is important to accept and consider the reality of death, and have a conversation
with your loved ones. It is good for them to express, and for caregivers to hear and understand, their fears and
concerns regarding death as well as their wishes and plans for what is important to them.
Thinking about the time when you can no longer care for your care recipients can be difficult as a caregiver. The
feelings about anticipated grief and loss as well as the uncertainties of what to do next can be overwhelming.
To overcome this, spend time with family and friends, who are your pillars of support during this difficult time.
Meeting other caregivers who have been through the same journey may also provide encouragement and comfort for you.
If you find yourself struggling to cope or unable to adjust, do seek help.
When measures are in place for your child, do take time to consider your own personal needs and wishes. More
information can be found here.
Resources and support
- Resources on Child Development
- Resources on EIPIC
- Resources on Formal Education
- Resources on Work Training and Employment
- Resources for Adult Care:
- Counselling services and resources